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To be successful in all branches of sports, it is necessary to enter the preparation and development process within at least 5-10 years. According to the research, it has been calculated based on the athletes who have achieved the sportive success that the athlete should make a long-term training plan, not a short-term one, from childhood to adulthood during this long-term training period.

In the training process, which is divided into stages, the athlete should make programs for their basic biological characteristics consisting of strength, flexibility, speed, coordination, and endurance to ensure their development. Training planning consists of 3 main periods;


Preparation period

Competition period

transition period


During the preparation period, it is a general adaptation process in which the anatomical and motor skills of the athlete are created specifically for the sport they will do. In addition to endurance, strength, speed, and coordination, the rest and recovery process of the athlete is determined in the training. In this process, the athlete develops all functions related to the sports branch to which he is adapted.

During the competition period, it is the training process for tactics, direction, and strategy that enables the athlete to reach the highest performance for the competition he has targeted with the knowledge he has gained during the preparation period. In this process, the athlete concentrates to give the best fight in the first competition; works to maximize strength, endurance, flexibility, and coordination.

During the transition period, the athlete, who has completed the Competition period, enters a resting period to get rid of the psychological and physical exhaustion they are in. During this period, the athlete should rest to enter the preparation period for the next competition and should enter the recovery process by staying away from stress to make up for their current deficiencies.

Regardless of all sports branches, the athlete should plan their training according to these periods and progress without harming the development process. In the studies on sports science, it has been shown that planning the health and performance of athletes in a way that provides the highest success affects their sportive success.